Albrecht Dürer


For the surname, see Ecker surname. Neither these, nor the Great Passion, were published as sets until several years later, but prints were sold individually in considerable numbers. English income profits harvest return yield profit produce picking earning. It had strong links with Italy, especially Venice , a relatively short distance across the Alps. From , Maximilian I became Dürer's major patron.

Synonyms and antonyms of Ertrag in the German dictionary of synonyms


Der armselige Ertrag von Lektionen im Italienischen und Französischen sollte meinen Magen befriedigen, der nur Deutsch versteht. Wissenschaft hat etwas Faszinierendes an sich. So eine geringfügige Investition an Fakten liefert so einen reichen Ertrag an Voraussagen.

In der erziehenden Welt geht nichts über das Schreiben, nicht einmal Lesen und Sprechen. Wenn du am Abend schlafen gehst, so nimm noch etwas aus der Heiligen Schrift mit dir zu Bett, um es im Herzen zu erwägen und es - gleich wie ein Tier - wiederzukäuen und damit sanft einzuschlafen. Es soll aber nicht viel sein, eher ganz wenig, aber gut durchdacht und verstanden.

Und wenn du am Morgen aufstehst, sollst du es als den Ertrag des gestrigen Tages vorfinden. Daniel Albert, Sven Braun, Wieso m ssen Wirtschaft und Ethik unabdingbar miteinander verbunden sein? Gewachsen, und denkt einmal! Johann Evangelist Fürst, Teil B Finanzielles Rechnungswesen 3 Erfolgsrechnung: Ausweis von Ertrag , Aufwand und Erfolg Von Zweckertrag aus Sicht der Finanzbuchhaltung und Der Ertrag eines Waldes ist aber Johann Leonhard Spaeth, Fortschaffungskosten aber wird eine Ersparung gemacht werden, die den Landbauer in Stand setzt, den bereits angebauten Ländereien die ersparten Geldmittel zuzuwenden, und dadurch ihren jetzigen Ertrag zu erhöhen.

Carl Friedrich Alexander Hartmann, Als Vfründen des Eapitels Wiefendangen waren aufgezahlt: Ertrag 12 Pfund 8. Erträge fallen auf Finanzkrisen-Niveau. Das einst lukrative Firmenkundengeschäft droht den deutschen Banken wegzubrechen: Im zweiten Halbjahr fiel der Ertrag des Geschäftsfeldes um His landscapes of this period, such as Pond in the Woods and Willow Mill , are quite different from his earlier watercolours.

There is a much greater emphasis on capturing atmosphere, rather than depicting topography. He made a number of Madonnas , single religious figures, and small scenes with comic peasant figures.

Prints are highly portable and these works made Dürer famous throughout the main artistic centres of Europe within a very few years.

The Venetian artist Jacopo de' Barbari , whom Dürer had met in Venice, visited Nuremberg in , and Dürer said that he learned much about the new developments in perspective , anatomy , and proportion from him. De' Barbari was unwilling to explain everything he knew, so Dürer began his own studies, which would become a lifelong preoccupation.

A series of extant drawings show Dürer's experiments in human proportion, leading to the famous engraving of Adam and Eve , which shows his subtlety while using the burin in the texturing of flesh surfaces. Dürer created large numbers of preparatory drawings, especially for his paintings and engravings, and many survive, most famously the Betende Hände Praying Hands from circa , a study for an apostle in the Heller altarpiece.

He continued to make images in watercolour and bodycolour usually combined , including a number of still lifes of meadow sections or animals, including his Young Hare and the Great Piece of Turf In Italy, he returned to painting, at first producing a series of works executed in tempera on linen. These include portraits and altarpieces, notably, the Paumgartner altarpiece and the Adoration of the Magi. In early , he returned to Venice and stayed there until the spring of In Venice he was given a valuable commission from the emigrant German community for the church of San Bartolomeo.

It includes portraits of members of Venice's German community, but shows a strong Italian influence. Other paintings Dürer produced in Venice include The Virgin and Child with the Goldfinch , Christ among the Doctors supposedly produced in a mere five days , and a number of smaller works. Despite the regard in which he was held by the Venetians, Dürer returned to Nuremberg by mid, remaining in Germany until His reputation had spread throughout Europe and he was on friendly terms and in communication with most of the major artists including Raphael , Giovanni Bellini and—mainly through Lorenzo di Credi — Leonardo da Vinci.

Between and Dürer worked on some of his most celebrated paintings: During this period he also completed two woodcut series, the Great Passion and the Life of the Virgin, both published in together with a second edition of the Apocalypse series. The post-Venetian woodcuts show Dürer's development of chiaroscuro modelling effects, [16] creating a mid-tone throughout the print to which the highlights and shadows can be contrasted.

Other works from this period include the thirty-seven woodcut subjects of the Little Passion, published first in , and a set of fifteen small engravings on the same theme in Indeed, complaining that painting did not make enough money to justify the time spent when compared to his prints, he produced no paintings from to However, in and Dürer created his three most famous engravings: Jerome in his Study , and the much-debated Melencolia I both These drafts were later used to design the famous chandeliers lusterweibchen.

In , he created his woodcut of a Rhinoceros which had arrived in Lisbon from a written description and sketch by another artist, without ever seeing the animal himself. An image of the Indian rhinoceros , the image has such force that it remains one of his best-known and was still used in some German school science text-books as late as last century. His only experiments with etching came in this period, producing five — and a sixth ; a technique he may have abandoned as unsuited to his aesthetic of methodical, classical form.

From , Maximilian I became Dürer's major patron. His commissions included The Triumphal Arch , a vast work printed from separate blocks, the symbolism of which is partly informed by Pirckheimer's translation of Horapollo 's Hieroglyphica.

The design program and explanations were devised by Johannes Stabius , the architectural design by the master builder and court-painter Jörg Kölderer and the woodcutting itself by Hieronymous Andreae, with Dürer as designer-in-chief.

Dürer worked with pen on the marginal images for an edition of the Emperor's printed Prayer-Book; these were quite unknown until facsimiles were published in as part of the first book published in lithography. Dürer's work on the book was halted for an unknown reason, and the decoration was continued by artists including Lucas Cranach the Elder and Hans Baldung.

Dürer also made several portraits of the Emperor, including one shortly before Maximilian's death in Maximilian's death came at a time when Dürer was concerned he was losing "my sight and freedom of hand" perhaps caused by arthritis and increasingly affected by the writings of Martin Luther. Dürer journeyed with his wife and her maid via the Rhine to Cologne and then to Antwerp , where he was well received and produced numerous drawings in silverpoint , chalk and charcoal.

In addition to going to the coronation, he made excursions to Cologne where he admired the painting of Stefan Lochner , Nijmegen , 's-Hertogenbosch , Bruges where he saw Michelangelo 's Madonna of Bruges , Ghent where he admired van Eyck 's altarpiece , and Zeeland. Dürer took a large stock of prints with him and wrote in his diary to whom he gave, exchanged or sold them, and for how much. This provides rare information of the monetary value placed on prints at this time.

Unlike paintings, their sale was very rarely documented. For example, Dürer offered his last portrait of Maximilian to his daughter, Margaret of Austria , but eventually traded the picture for some white cloth after Margaret disliked the portrait and declined to accept it. Dürer wrote that this treasure "was much more beautiful to me than miracles. These things are so precious that they have been valued at , florins ".

Having secured his pension, Dürer finally returned home in July , having caught an undetermined illness—perhaps malaria [22] —which afflicted him for the rest of his life, and greatly reduced his rate of work.

On his return to Nuremberg, Dürer worked on a number of grand projects with religious themes, including a crucifixion scene and a Sacra conversazione , though neither was completed.

However, one consequence of this shift in emphasis was that during the last years of his life, Dürer produced comparatively little as an artist. In painting, there was only a portrait of Hieronymus Holtzschuher , a Madonna and Child , Salvator Mundi , and two panels showing St. Peter in background and St. Mark in the background. This last great work, the Four Apostles , was given by Dürer to the City of Nuremberg—although he was given guilders in return. As for engravings, Dürer's work was restricted to portraits and illustrations for his treatise.

For those of the Cardinal , Melanchthon, and Dürer's final major work, a drawn portrait of the Nuremberg patrician Ulrich Starck, Dürer depicted the sitters in profile, perhaps reflecting a more mathematical approach. Despite complaining of his lack of a formal classical education, Dürer was greatly interested in intellectual matters and learned much from his boyhood friend Willibald Pirckheimer , whom he no doubt consulted on the content of many of his images.

Dürer succeeded in producing two books during his lifetime. The other, a work on city fortifications, was published in Dürer died in Nuremberg at the age of 56, leaving an estate valued at 6, florins — a considerable sum.

He is buried in the Johannisfriedhof cemetery. His large house purchased in from the heirs of the astronomer Bernhard Walther , where his workshop was located and where his widow lived until her death in , remains a prominent Nuremberg landmark.

Dürer's writings suggest that he may have been sympathetic to Martin Luther 's ideas, though it is unclear if he ever left the Catholic Church. Dürer wrote of his desire to draw Luther in his diary in Martin Luther; thus I intend to make a portrait of him with great care and engrave him on a copper plate to create a lasting memorial of the Christian man who helped me overcome so many difficulties.

Most tellingly, Pirckheimer wrote in a letter to Johann Tscherte in Dürer's later works have also been claimed to show Protestant sympathies. For example, his woodcut of The Last Supper of has often been understood to have an evangelical theme, focussing as it does on Christ espousing the Gospel , as well the inclusion of the Eucharistic cup, an expression of Protestant utraquism , [28] although this interpretation has been questioned.

Dürer exerted a huge influence on the artists of succeeding generations, especially in printmaking, the medium through which his contemporaries mostly experienced his art, as his paintings were predominantly in private collections located in only a few cities. His success in spreading his reputation across Europe through prints was undoubtedly an inspiration for major artists such as Raphael , Titian , and Parmigianino , all of whom collaborated with printmakers in order to promote and distribute their work.

His work in engraving seems to have had an intimidating effect upon his German successors, the " Little Masters " who attempted few large engravings but continued Dürer's themes in small, rather cramped compositions. Lucas van Leyden was the only Northern European engraver to successfully continue to produce large engravings in the first third of the 16th century.

The generation of Italian engravers who trained in the shadow of Dürer all either directly copied parts of his landscape backgrounds Giulio Campagnola , Giovanni Battista Palumba , Benedetto Montagna and Cristofano Robetta , or whole prints Marcantonio Raimondi and Agostino Veneziano. However, Dürer's influence became less dominant after , when Marcantonio perfected his new engraving style, which in turn travelled over the Alps to dominate Northern engraving also.

In painting, Dürer had relatively little influence in Italy, where probably only his altarpiece in Venice was seen, and his German successors were less effective in blending German and Italian styles. His intense and self-dramatizing self-portraits have continued to have a strong influence up to the present, especially on painters in the 19th and 20th century who desired a more dramatic portrait style. Dürer has never fallen from critical favour, and there have been significant revivals of interest in his works in Germany in the Dürer Renaissance of about to , in the early nineteenth century, and in German nationalism from to Dürer's study of human proportions and the use of transformations to a coordinate grid to demonstrate facial variation inspired similar work by D'Arcy Thompson in his book On Growth and Form.

In all his theoretical works, in order to communicate his theories in the German language rather than in Latin , Dürer used graphic expressions based on a vernacular , craftsmen's language.

For example, "Schneckenlinie" "snail-line" was his term for a spiral form. Thus, Dürer contributed to the expansion in German prose which Martin Luther had begun with his translation of the Bible. Dürer's geometric constructions include helices , conchoids and epicycloids. He also draws on Apollonius , and Johannes Werner 's 'Libellus super viginti duobus elementis conicis' of The second book moves onto two dimensional geometry, i. Here Dürer favours the methods of Ptolemy over Euclid.

The third book applies these principles of geometry to architecture , engineering and typography. In architecture Dürer cites Vitruvius but elaborates his own classical designs and columns. In typography , Dürer depicts the geometric construction of the Latin alphabet , relying on Italian precedent. However, his construction of the Gothic alphabet is based upon an entirely different modular system.

The fourth book completes the progression of the first and second by moving to three-dimensional forms and the construction of polyhedra. Here Dürer discusses the five Platonic solids , as well as seven Archimedean semi-regular solids, as well as several of his own invention.

In all these, Dürer shows the objects as nets. Finally, Dürer discusses the Delian Problem and moves on to the 'construzione legittima', a method of depicting a cube in two dimensions through linear perspective. It was in Bologna that Dürer was taught possibly by Luca Pacioli or Bramante the principles of linear perspective , and evidently became familiar with the 'costruzione legittima' in a written description of these principles found only, at this time, in the unpublished treatise of Piero della Francesca.

He was also familiar with the 'abbreviated construction' as described by Alberti and the geometrical construction of shadows, a technique of Leonardo da Vinci. Although Dürer made no innovations in these areas, he is notable as the first Northern European to treat matters of visual representation in a scientific way, and with understanding of Euclidean principles. In addition to these geometrical constructions, Dürer discusses in this last book of Underweysung der Messung an assortment of mechanisms for drawing in perspective from models and provides woodcut illustrations of these methods that are often reproduced in discussions of perspective.

Dürer based these constructions on both Vitruvius and empirical observations of, "two to three hundred living persons", [24] in his own words. The second book includes eight further types, broken down not into fractions but an Albertian system, which Dürer probably learned from Francesco di Giorgio 's 'De harmonica mundi totius' of In the third book, Dürer gives principles by which the proportions of the figures can be modified, including the mathematical simulation of convex and concave mirrors ; here Dürer also deals with human physiognomy.

The fourth book is devoted to the theory of movement. Appended to the last book, however, is a self-contained essay on aesthetics, which Dürer worked on between and , and it is here that we learn of his theories concerning 'ideal beauty'.

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